List of Existing Food Additives

This list of food additives from natural origin is complied and published by the Ministry of Health and Welfare on April 16, 1996.

These additives (365 in total as of January 30, 2014) are listed here in alphabetic order. The number preceding the name of each additive is the sequence number given to the corresponding additive in the original Japanese list.

En2014.1.30.pdf
Effective from January 30, 2014

No.

Name

Note

236

Absinth extract A substance composed mainly of sesquiterpenes obtained from the whole absinth grass.

10

a-Acetolactate decarboxylase -

146

Acid clay -

147

Acid phosphatase -

3

Actinidine -

56

Activated acid clay -

55

Active carbon A substance obtained by carbonizing and activating carbon-containing substances.

5

Acylase -

11

5'-Adenylic acid -

2

Agarase -

4

Agrobacterium succinoglycan A substance composed mainly of succinoglycan obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Agrobacteriurn.

17

L-Alanine -

23

Alginate lyase -

22

Alginic acid -

24

Aluminium -

196

Amino acid-sugar reaction product A substance obtained by heating the mixture of amino acids and monosaccharides.

14

Aminopeptidase -

15

alpha-Amylase -

16

beta-Amylase -

12

Annatto extract A substance composed mainly of norbixin and bixin obtained from the seed coats of annatto.

25

Anthocyanase -

19

Arabino galactan -

20

L-Arabinose -

21

L-Arginine -

145

Artemisia sphaerocephala seed gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the seed coats of SABAKU-YOMOGI (Artemisia sphaerocephala KRASCH).

6

Ascorbate oxidase -

7

L-Asparagine -

8

L-Aspartic acid -

9

Aspergillus terreus glycoprotein A substance composed mainly of glycoprotein obtained from the cultured solution of mould belonging to Aspergillus terreus.

1

Aureobasidium cultured solution A substance composed mainly of beta-1, 3-1, 6-glucan obtained from the cultured solution of yeast belonging to Aureobasidium.

230

Bacillus natto gum A substance composed mainly of polyglutamic acid obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Bacillus natto.

320

Bees wax A substance composed mainly of myricyl palmitate obtained from honeycomb.

253

Beet red A substance composed mainly of betanin and isobetanin obtained from beet roots.

303

Bentonite -

290

Betaine -

135

Bone carbon black A substance composed mainly of carbon obtained by carbonizing bones.

134

Bone charcoal A substance composed mainly of carbon powder and calcium phosphate obtained from bovine bones.

270

Brazilian licorice extract A substance composed mainly of peliandorin obtained from Brazilian licorice roots.

277

Bromelain -

184

Buckwheat ash extract A substance obtained by extraction from the ashes of buckwheat stems or leaves.

266

Butane -

50

Cacao colour A substance composed mainly of polymers of anthocyanins obtained from cacao beans.

60

Caffeine (extract) A substance composed mainly of caffeine obtained from coffee beans or tea leaves.

163

Calcinated calcium A substance composed mainly of calcium compounds obtained by calcinating sea urchinshells, shells, coral, whey, bones or eggshells.

77

Candelilla wax A substance composed mainly of hentriacontane obtained from candelilla stems.

144

Cane wax A substance composed mainly of myricyl palmitate obtained from cane stems.

216

Capsicum water-soluble extract A substance composed mainly of water-soluble substances obtained by extraction from capsicum fruits.

65

Caramel I (plain) A substance obtained by heat-treating food-grade carbohydrates including starch hydrolysates, molasses or saccharides, excluding "Caramel II", "Caramel III" and "Caramel IV".

66

Caramel II (caustic sulfite process) A substance obtained by adding sulfite compounds to, and heat-treating, food-grade carbohydrates including starch-hydrolysates, molasses or saccharides, excluding "Caramel IV".

67

Caramel III (ammonia process) A substance obtained by adding ammonium compounds to, and heat-treating, food-grade carbohydrates including starch-hydrolysates, molasses or saccharides, excluding "Caramel IV".

68

Caramel IV (sulfite ammonia process) A substance obtained by adding sulfite compounds and ammonium compounds to, and heat-treating, food-grade carbohydrates including starch-hydrolysates, molasses or saccharides.

71

Carboxypeptidase -

70

Carnauba wax A substance composed mainly of ceryl hydroxycerotate obtained from the leaves of carnauba trees.

73

Carob bean gum A substance obtained by grinding, or dissolving and precipitating the seed albumens of locust beans.

72

Carob germ colour A substance obtained by grinding the seed germs of locust beans.

61

Carrageenan A substance composed mainly of i-carrageenan, k-carrageenan and l-carrageenan obtained from the whole algae of IBARA-NORI (Hypneaceae hypnea), KIRINSAI (Solieriacea eucheuma), GINNAN-SOU (Gingartinaceae iridaea), SUGI-NORI (Gingartinaceae gigartina), or TSUNOMATA (Gingartinaceae chondrus).

238

Carrot carotene A substance composed mainly of carotene obtained from carrot roots.

293

Carthamus red A substance composed mainly of carthamin obtained from safflower flowers.

294

Carthamus yellow A substance composed mainly of safflor yellow obtained from safflower flowers.

53

Cassia gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained by grinding the seeds of EBISU-GUSA-MODOKI (Cassia tora LINN.).

54

Catalase -

58

Catechin -

181

Cellulase -

332

Charcoal A substance obtained by carbonizing bamboo or wood.

199

Chicle A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of sapodilla trees.

203

Chilte A substance composed mainly of amyrine acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of chilte trees (Chidoscolus elasticus LUNDELL).

337

Chinese bayberry extract A substance obtained by extraction from the fruits, bark, or leaves of Chinese bayberry.

82

Chitin -

81

Chitinase -

84

Chitosan -

83

Chitosanase -

117

Chlorophyll -

116

Chlorophylline -

217

Cholesterol A substance composed mainly of cholesterol obtained from fish oil or "lanolin".

115

Clove extract A substance composed mainly of eugenol obtained from the buds, leaves or flowers of clove.

133

Cochineal extract A substance composed mainly of carminic acid obtained from cochineal insects.

232

Coffee bean extract A substance composed mainly of chlorogenic acid and polyphenols obtained from coffee beans.

214

Copper -

101

Cristobalite -

183

Crude magnesium chloride (sea water) A substance composed mainly of magnesium chloride obtained by separating potassium chloride and sodium chloride from sea water.

182

Crude potassium chloride (sea water) A substance composed mainly of potassium chloride obtained by separating sodium chloride from sea water.

59

Curdlan A substance composed mainly of b-1,3-glucans obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Agrobacterium or Alcaligenes.

150

Cyanocobalamin -

155

Cyclodextrin -

156

Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase -

157

L-Cystine -

160

5'-Cytidylic acid -

207

5'-Deaminase -

208

Depolymerized natural rubber A substance composed mainly of polyisoprenes obtained by decomposing the secretion of para rubber trees.

211

Dextran -

210

Dextranase -

119

Diatomaceous earth -

213

Dunaliella carotene A substance composed mainly of b-carotene obtained from the whole alga of dunaliella.

40

Elemi resin A substance composed mainly of b-amyrin obtained from the secretion of elemi trees.

129

Enzymatically decomposed apple extract A substance composed mainly of catechins and chlorogenic acid obtained by enzymatically decomposing apple fruits

130

Enzymatically decomposed lecithin A substance composed mainly of phosphatidic acid and lysolecithin obtained from vegetable "lecithin" or "yolk lecithin".

141

Enzymatically decomposed rice bran A substance composed mainly of phytic acid and peptides obtained from dewaxed rice bran.

354

Enzymatically decomposed rutin A substance composed mainly of isoquercitrin obtained from "rutin (extract)".

92

Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained by grinding and hydrolyzing guar seeds.

128

Enzymatically hydrolyzed licorice extract A substacne composed mainly of glycyrrhetinic acid-3-glucuronide obtained by enzymatically hydrolyzing a "licorice extract".

125

Enzymatically modified hesperidin A substance obtained by adding glucose to "hesperidin" using cyclodextrin glucosyl transferase.

123

Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin A substance composed mainly of alpha-glucosylquercetin obtained from "enzymatically decomposed rutin".

127

Enzymatically modified lecithin A substance composed mainly of phosphatidylglycerol obtained from "vegetable lecithin" or "yolk lecithin".

124

Enzymatically modified naringin A substance composed mainly of a-glucosyinaringin obtained from "naringin".

126

Enzymatically modified rutin (extract) A substance composed mainly of a-glucosylrutin obtained from "rutin (extract)".

174

Essential oil-removed fennel extract A substance composed mainly of glucosyl sinapiralcohol obtained from fennel seeds.

39

Esterase -

38

Exomaltotetraohydrolase -

263

Ferritin -

264

Ferulic acid -

259

Ficin -

87

Fish scale foil A substance obtained by extraction from the epithelium of fish.

279

Fractionated lecithin A substance composed mainly of sphingomyelin, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl choline obtained from "vegetable lecithin" or "yolk lecithin".

271

Fructosyl transferase -

265

Fukuronori extract A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from FUKURO-NORI (Gloiopeltis furcata POSTEL et RUPR).

257

Furcellaran A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the whole algae of furcellaria (Furcellaria fastigiata HUD).

62

a-Galactosidase -

63

b-Galactosidase (Lactase) -

306

Gallic acid -

96

Gardenia blue A substance obtanined by adding b-glucosidase to the mixture of iridoid glycosides obtained from gardenia fruits and protein-decomposed substances.

97

Gardenia red A substance obtained by adding b-glucosidase to the mixture of ester-hydrolysates of iridoid glycosides obtained from gardenia fruits and protein-decomposed substances.

98

Gardenia yellow A substance composed mainly of crocin and crocetin obtained from gardenia fruits.

153

Gellan gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Pseudomonas elodea.

120

Gentian root extract A substance composed mainly of amarogentin and gentiopicroside obtained from gentian roots or rhizomes (Gentiana lutea LINNE).

162

Ginger extract A substance composed mainly of shogaol and zingerol obtained from ginger rhizomes.

102

Glucanase -

103

Glucoamylase -

104

Glucosamine -

109

Glucose isomerase -

110

Glucose oxidase -

105

a-Glucosidase -

106

b-Glucosidase -

107

a-Glucosyltransferase -

108

a-Glucosyltransferase-treated stevia A substance composed mainly of a-glucosylsteviosides obtained from a "stevia extract".

111

Glutaminase -

112

L-Glutamine -

89

Gold -

52

Granite porphyry -

269

Grape seed extract A substance composed mainly of proanthocyanidins obtained from the seeds of American grapes or grapes

267

Grape skin colour A substance composed mainly of anthocyanins obtained from the pericarps of American grapes or grapes.

268

Grape skin-derived substance A substance composed mainly of polyphenols obtained from the pericarps of American grapes or grapes.

113

Grapefruit seed extract A substance composed mainly of fatty acids and flavonoids obtained from grapefruit seeds.

93

Guaiac resin (Guajac resin) A substance composed mainly of guaiaconic acid, guaiaretic acid, and b-resin obtained from the trunks/branches of guaiacum trees.

94

Guajac resin (extract) A substance composed mainly of a- and b-guaiaconic acids obtained from the secretion of guaiacum trees.

91

Guar gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from guar seeds, excluding "Enzymatically hydrolyzed guar gum".

18

Gum Arabic A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the secretion of acacia trees.

57

Gum ghatti A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the secretion of ghatti trees (Anogeissus latifolia WALL.).

99

Gutta hang kang A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of gutta hang kang trees (Palaquium leiocarpum BOERL.).

100

Gutta percha A substance composed mainly of polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of gutta percha trees (Palaquiurn gutta BURCK.).

299

Haematococcus algae colour A substance composed mainly of astaxanthin obtained from the whole alga of haematococcus (Haematococcus C.A.AGARCH).

287

Hego-ginkgo leaf extract A substance obtained by extraction from the leaves of HEGO (Cyathea fauriei COPEL) and ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba LINNE).

302

Helium -

301

Heme iron -

300

Hemicellulase -

297

Heptane -

289

Hesperidin -

288

Hesperidinase -

283

Hexane -

121

Higher fatty acid A substance obtained by hydrolyzing animal or vegetable fats/oils or their hardened fats/oils.

252

L- Histidine

175

Horseradish extract A substance composed mainly of isothiocyanates obtained from horseradish roots.

249

Hyaluronic acid -

168

Hydrogen -

254

L-Hydroxyproline -

32

Inositol -

31

Inulinase -

33

Invertase -

212

Iron -

27

Iso-a-bitter acid A substance composed mainly of isohumulones obtained from hop flowers.

26

Isoamylase -

28

Isomaltodextranase -

29

Itaconic acid -

161

Jamaica quassia extract A substance composed mainly of quassin and neoquassin obtained from the trunks/branches or bark of Jamaica quassia trees.

333

Japan wax A substance composed mainly of glycerol palmitate obtained from the fruits of Japanese wax trees (Rhus succedanea LINNE).

51

Japanese persimmon colour A substance composed mainly of flavonoids obtained from Japanese persimmon fruits.

154

Jelutong A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of jelutong trees.

307

Jojoba wax A substance composed mainly of icosenyl icosenate obtained from jojoba fruits.

132

Kaoliang colour A substance composed mainly of apigeninidin and luteolinidin obtained from kaoliang seeds.

49

Kaolin -

69

Karaya gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the secretion of KARAYA trees (Sterculia urens ROXB.) or silk cotton trees (Cochlospermum gossypium A.P.DeCandolle).

114

Kooroo colour [Matsudai colour] A substance obtained by extraction from the roots of SOMEMONO-IMO (Dioscorea matsudai HAYATA).

342

Lac colour A substance composed mainly of laccaic acids obtained from the secretion of lac scale insects (Laccifer lacca KERR).

341

Lactoferrin concentrates A substance composed mainly of lactoferrin obtained from mammals' milk.

340

Lactoperoxidase -

343

Lanolin A substance composed mainly of esters of higher alcohols and a-hydroxylic acids obtained from waxy substances bearing the surface of sheep wool.

358

Leche de vaca A substance composed mainly of esters of amyrin obtained from the secretion of leche de vaca trees (Brosimum utile (H.B.K.) PITT.).

361

L-Leucine -

359

Levan A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Bacillus subtilis.

75

Licorice extract A substance composed mainly of glycyrrhizic acid obtained from the roots or rhizomes of Chinese licorice, Xinjiang licorice or licorice.

76

Licorice oli extract A substance composed mainly of flavonoids obtained from the roots or rhizomes of Chinese licorice, Xinjiang licorice or licorice.

13

Linseed gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from linseeds.

353

Linter cellulose A substance composed mainly of cellulose obtained from cotton single pilus.

349

Lipase -

350

Lipoxygenase -

352

Liquid paraffin -

362

Logwood colour A substance composed mainly of haematoxylin obtained from the heart wood of logwood.

347

L-Lysine -

348

Lysozyme -

311

Macrophomopsis gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of microorganism belonging to Macrophomopsis.

316

Maltose phosphorylase -

317

Maltotriohydrolase -

357

Mannentake extract A substance obtained by extraction from the mycelium or fruit body of MANNENTAKE (Ganoderma lucidum KARST.) or its cultured solution.

315

Marigold colour A substance composed mainly of xanthophylls obtained from marigold flowers.

314

Massaranduba balata A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of massaranduba balata trees.

313

Massaranduba chocolate A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of massaranduba chocolate trees.

312

Mastic gum A substance composed mainly of masticadienonic acid obtained from the secretion of mastic trees.

328

Melaleuca oil A substance composed mainly of essential oil obtained from melaleuca leaves.

326

Menaquinone (extract) A substance composed mainly of menaquinone-4 obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Arthrobacter.

327

Mevalonic acid -

310

Microcrystallin wax -

250

Microcrystalline cellulose A substance composed mainly of crystalline cellulose obtained from pulp.

251

Microfibrillated cellulose A substance composed mainly of cellulose obtained by microfibrillating pulp or cotton.

167

Milt protein A substance composed mainly of basic proteins obtained from fish testes.

319

Mixed tocopherols A substance composed mainly of d-a-, d-b-, d-g- and d-d-tocopherols obtained from vegetable oils.

292

Monascus colour A substance composed mainly of ankaflavin and monascolubrin obtained from the cultured solution of mould belonging to Monascus.

291

Monascus yellow A substance composed mainly of xanthomonacins obtained from the cultured solution of mould belonging to Monascus.

329

Mousouchiku dry distillate A substance obtained by dry distillation from the stems of MOUSOU-CHIKU bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla MITF.).

330

Mousouchiku extract A substance composed mainly of 2,6-dimethoxy-l,4-bezoquinone obtained from the stem skins of MOUSOU-CHIKU bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla MITF).

325

Muramidase -

64

Mustard extract A substance composed mainly of allyl isothiocyanate obtained from Indian mustard seeds.

321

Myrrh A substance obtained by extraction from the secretion of myrrh trees.

234

Naringin -

233

Naringinase -

237

Nickel -

235

Niger gutta A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of niger gutta trees (Ficus platyphylla DELILE.).

200

Nitrogen -

318

Non-calcinated calcium A substance composed mainly of calcium salts obtained by drying shells, pearl layers, coral, bones or eggshells.

44

Oligogalacturonic acid -

190

Onion colour A substance composed mainly of quercetin obtained from onion bulbs.

47

Orange colour A substance composed mainly of carotene and xanthophylls obtained from the fruits or peels of AMA-DAIDAI (Citrus sinensis OSBECK).

46

Oregano extract A substance composed mainly of carvacrol and thymol obtained from oregano leaves.

45

g-Oryzanol A substance composed mainly of both esters consisting of each combination of sterols and ferulic acid, and triterpene alcohols and ferulic acid obtained from rice bran or germ oil.

148

Oxygen -

42

Ozokerite -

43

Ozone -

246

Palladium -

244

Palm oil carotene A substance composed mainly of carotene obtained from oil palm fruits.

248

Pancreatin -

243

Papain -

215

Paprika colour A substance composed mainly of capsanthins obtained from capsicum fruits.

247

Paraffin wax -

336

Peach gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the secretion of peach trees.

282

Pecan nut colour A substance composed mainly of flavonoids obtained from the pericarps or astringent skins of pecan nuts.

285

Pectin -

286

Pectin digests A substance composed mainly of galacturonic acid obtained from "pectin".

284

Pectinase -

296

Pepsin -

298

Peptidase -

158

Perilla extract A substance composed mainly of terpenoids obtained from perilla seeds or leaves.

245

Perlite -

241

Peroxidase -

231

Petroleum naphtha -

258

Phaffia colour A substance composed mainly of astaxanthins obtained from the cultured solution of yeast belonging to Phaffia.

86

Phellodendron bark extract A substance composed mainly of berberine obtained from the bark of phellodendron trees (Phellodendron amurense RUPR.).

304

Phosphodiesterase -

305

Phospholipase -

260

Phytase -

261

Phytic acid A substance composed mainly of inositol hexaphosphate obtained from rice bran or corn seeds.

262

Phytin (extract) A substance ccomposed mainly of magnesium inositol hexaphosphate obtained from rice bran or corn seeds.

242

Platinum -

309

e-Polylysine -

308

Polyphenol oxidase -

195

Powdered bile A substance composed mainly of cholic acid and desoxycholic acid obtained from bile.

280

Powdered cellulose A substance composed mainly of cellulose obtained by decomposing pulp, excluding "Microcrystalline cellulose".

281

Powdered rice hulls A substance composed mainly of cellulose obtained from rice hulls.

170

Powdered stevia A substance composed mainly of steviol glycosides obtained by grinding stevia leaves.

278

L-Proline -

275

Propane -

276

Propoils extract A substance composed mainly of flavonoids obtained from honeycomb.

274

Protease -

143

Psyllium seed gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the seed coats of blond psyllium.

273

Pullulan -

272

Pullulanase -

323

Purple corn colour A substance composed mainly of cyanidine-3-glucoside obtained from corn seeds.

322

Purple sweet potato colour A substance composed mainly of cyanidine acylglucosides and peonidin acylglucosides obtained from the tuberous roots of sweet potatos.

324

Purple yam colour A substance composed mainly of cyanidine acylglucosides obtained from yam tuberous roots.

95

Quercetin -

173

Quicklime -

88

Quillaia extract (Quillaja extract) A substance composed mainly of saponins obtained from the bark of quillaia trees.

339

Rakanka extract A substance composed mainly of mogulosides obtained from rakanka fruits (Momordica grosvenori SWINGLE).

85

Redbark cinchona extract A substance composed mainly of quinidine, quinine and cinchonine obtained from the bark of redbark cinchona trees.

360

Rennet -

139

Resin of depolymerized natural rubber A substance composed mainly of diterpenes, triterpenes and tetraterpenes obtained from "rubber".

345

L-Rhamnose -

344

Rhamsan gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Alcaligenes.

351

D-Ribose -

140

Rice bran oil extract A substance composed mainly of ferulic acid obtained from rice bran oil.

142

Rice bran wax A substance composed mainly of myricyl lignocerate obtained from rice bran oil.

30

Rice straw ash extract A substance obtained from the ashes of rice stems or leaves.

239

Roasted rice bran extract A substance composed mainly of maltol obtained from roasted rice bran.

240

Roasted soybean extract A substance composed mainly of maltol obtained from roasted soybean seeds.

365

Rosemary extract A substance composed mainly of carnosic acid, carnosol and rosemanol obtained from rosemary leaves or flowers.

363

Rosidinha A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of rosidinha trees (Sideroxylon).

364

Rosin A substance composed mainly of abietic acid obtained from the secretion of pine trees.

138

Rubber A substance composed mainly of polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of Pararubber trees, excluding "Depolymerized natural rubber".

74

Rumput roman extract A substance composed mainly of capillin obtained from the whole grass of rumput roman.

356

Ruthenium -

355

Rutin (extract) A substance composed mainly of rutin obtained from the whole grass of AZUKI (Azukia angularis OHWl), the buds or flowers of Japanese pagoda trees or the whole buckwheat grass.

178

Sage extract A substance composed mainly of carnosic acid and phenolic diterpenes obtained from salvia leaves.

159

Sandalwood red A substance composed mainly of santalin obtained from the trunks/branches of red sandalwood trees.

48

Seaweed ash extract A substance composed mainly of potassium iodide obtained from the ashes of brown algae.

179

Sepiolite -

180

L-Serine -

136

Sesame seed oil unsaponified matter A substance composed mainly of sesamolin obtained from sesame seeds.

137

Sesami straw ash extarct A substance obtained by extraction from the ashes of sesami stems or leaves.

149

Shea nut colour A substance obtained from the fruits or seed coats of shea.

151

Shellac A substance composed mainly of esters of aleuritic acid and shellolic acid or jalaric acid, obtained from the secretion of scale insects.

152

Shellac wax A substance composed mainly of wax obtained from the secretion of scale insects.

90

Silver -

118

Smoke flavourings A substance obtained by capturing the gas generated by burning sugar canes, bamboo, corn stalks or wood, or a substance obtained by dry distillation from such materials.

41

Sodium chloride-decreased brine (saline lake) A substance composed mainly of salts of alkaline metals or alkaline earth metals obtained by separating sodium chloride from saline lake water.

185

Sorva A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of sorva trees.

186

Sorvinha A substance composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of sorvinha trees (Couma utilis MUELL.).

187

Soybean saponin A substance composed mainly of saponins obtained from soybeans.

172

Sphingolipid A substance composed mainly of sphingosine derivatives obtained from rice bran.

122

Spice extracts Substances obtained by extraction or steam-distillation from hemp seeds, asafetida, ajowan, anise, angelica, fennel, turmeric, allspice, oregano, orange peel, Chinese pepper, cassia, chamomil, mustard, cardamon, curry leaves, licorice, caraway, gardenia, cumin,cress, clove, poppy seeds, caper, pepper, sesameseeds, coriander, sassafras, saffron, savory, salvia, Japanese pepper, perilla, cinnamon, shallot, juniperberry, ginger, star anise, spearmint, horseradish,celery, sorrel, thyme, onion, tamarind, tarragon, chive, chervil, dill, capsicum, nutmeg, wormwood, nigella, carrot, garlic, basil, parsley, mint, vanilla, paprika, hyssop, fenugreek, peppermint, horsemint, marjoram, MYOGA (Zingiber Mioga ROSC.), lavender, linden, lemongrass, lemonbalm, rose, rosemary, laurel or WASABI (Japanese horseradish), excluding "Turmeric oleoresin", "Oregano extract", "Orange colour", "Mustard extract", "Licorice extract", "Licorice oil extract", "Gardenia yellow", "Clove extract", "Sesame seed oil unsaponified matter", "Perilia extract", "Ginger extract", "Essential oil-removed fennel extract", "Horseradish extract", "Sage extract", "Onion colour", "Tamarind colour", "Tamarind seed gum", "Tannin (extract)", "Paprika colour", "Capsicum water-soluble extract", "Absinth extract", "Carrot carotene", and "Rosemary extract".

171

Spirulina colour A substance composed mainly of phycocyanin obtained from the whole alga of spirulina.

169

Stevia extract A substance composed mainly of steviol glycosides obtained by extraction from stevia leaves.

255

Sunflower seed extract A substance composed mainly of isochlorogenic acid and chlorogenic acid obtained from sunflower seeds.

194

Talc -

191

Tamarind colour A substance composed mainly of fiavonoids obtained from tamarind seeds.

192

Tamarind seed gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained tamarind seeds.

197

Tannase -

198

Tannin (extract) A substance composed mainly of tannin and tannic acid obtained from Japanese persimmon fruits, Japanese gall, angelica powder, nutgall or silver wattle bark.

193

Tara gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the seeds of tara trees (Caesalpinia spinosa (MOL.)(O.KUNTZE)).

189

Taurine (extract) A substance composed mainly of taurine obtained from the viscera or meat of fish or mammals.

201

Tea dry distillate A substance obtained by dry distillation from tea leaves.

202

Tea extract A substance composed mainly of catechins obtained from tea leaves.

188

Thaumatin A substance composed mainly of thaumatin obtained from the seeds of Thaumatococcus daniellii.

209

Theobromine -

206

Thujaplicin (extract) A substance composed mainly of thujaplicins obtained from the trunks/branches or roots of HIBA trees (Thujopsis dolabrate SIEB. et ZUCC.).

334

Timber ash A substance obtained by ashing bamboo or wood.

335

Timber ash extract A substance obtained by extraction from "timber ashes".

219

d-a-Tocopherol -

220

d-g-Tocopherol -

221

d-d-Tocopherol -

218

Tocotrienol -

222

Tomato colour A substance composed mainly of lycopene obtained from tomato fruits.

229

Tororoaoi A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the roots of TORORO-AOI (Abelmoschus manihot MED.).

223

Tragacanth gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the secretion of tragacanth trees.

224

Transglucosidase -

225

Transglutaminase -

227

Trehalose -

228

Trehalose phosphorylase -

226

Trypsin -

205

Tunu A substance composed mainly of amyrine acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of tunu trees (Castilla fallax COOK).

35

Turmeric oleoresin [Curcumin] A substance composed mainly of curcumin obtained from turmeric rhizomes.

204

L-Tyrosine -

37

Urease -

36

Urushi wax A substance composed mainly of glycerol palmitate obtained from the fruits of Japanese lacquer trees (Rhus verniciflua STOKES).

165

Vegetable carbon black A substace composed mainly of carbon obtained by carbonizing plants.

166

Vegetable lecithin A substance composed mainly of lecithin obtained from rape seeds or soybeans.

164

Vegetable sterol A substance composed mainly of phytosterols obtained from oil seeds.

295

Venezuelan chicle A substacne composed mainly of amyrin acetate and polyisoprenes obtained from the secretion of Venezuelan chicle trees.

256

Vermiculite -

34

Welan gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Alcaligenes.

331

Wood chip A substance obtained by grinding the trunk/branches of Siberian filbert or BUNA (Fagus crenata BLUME).

78

Xanthan gum A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cultured solution of bacteria belonging to Xanthomonas.

79

Xylanase -

80

D-Xylose -

131

Yeast cell wal A substance composed mainly of polysaccharides obtained from the cell walls of yeast belonging to Saccharomyces.

346

Yolk lecithin A substance composed mainly of lecithin obtained from egg yolk.

338

Yucca foam extract A substance composed mainly of saponins obtained from the whole grass of yucca joshua (Yucca arborescenss TREL.) or yucca schidigera (Yucca schidigera ROEZL ex ORLGIES).

176

Zein A substance composed mainly of vegetable proteins obtained from corn seeds.

177

Zeolite -

Note: The additives listed in No.1 to No.365 do not include substances obtained by causing chemical reactions, excluding decomposition to elements or compounds using chemical means.

The Japan Food Chemical Research Foundation
Japanese Top